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Monday, April 6, 2015

Sugarcane Aphid Distrobution Map

Sugarcane Aphid Distribution Map

                The first official sugarcane aphid confirmed distribution map of 2015 has been released.  You can view it at our dedicated sugarcane aphid news blog at:

Click the 2015 Distribution Map link to the right of that blog.  Please follow that blog for the latest sugarcane aphid news from across the state.  I will be utilizing this blog for local and area releases for all pests.
What I can say about this 2015 sugarcane aphid ‘starting point’ is that it is far to our south, but is also four tier counties closer than the 2014 sugarcane aphid ‘starting point.’  Due to this closer ‘starting point’ this aphid might be arriving here a few weeks earlier than last season.
This week we plan on concluding our sugarcane aphid overwintering study now that we are beginning to see spring growth on the Johnson grass patch where we placed the overwintering cage and temperature sensors.  I do not expect to find active aphids at this site, 2 miles south of Hale Center in Hale County.  If we do find active sugarcane aphids, sorghum IPM plans would need to intensify drastically.  As the situation stands today and based upon this current known sugarcane aphid distribution map and expected weather patterns, we should be seeing the aphid in Hale, Swisher, and Floyd possibly by the middle of August.
Even if this proves arrival date accurate or late I still do not feel this aphid will run roughshod over our sorghum or sorghum like hay crop production in the High Plains.  We have good IPM options to meet this foe with and we can put some of the basics into place today.
First, for this area I would suggest making use of an earlier planting date.  Sorghum only requires a 58°F soil temperature for planting.  For our sugarcane aphid IPM plan, this means we can plant our intended sorghum acres with an early-mid or maybe a mid-maturity sorghum variety earlier and add to the likelihood of avoiding the brunt of the economic impact of the aphid by being ready for harvest before the aphid can get a good foothold. 
Next, we need to evaluate the agronomic properties of the known tolerant or ‘resistant’ sorghum varieties and make use of those that look to be a good fit for your production needs.  These ‘resistant’ varieties will not be bullet proof to the sugarcane aphid.  We would still need to scout and check for the aphid if these varieties are grown.  Resistant varieties can reduce (not eliminate) the likelihood of developing an economic problem from an integrated approach. 
Our common seed treatments have also proven to give about 35 to 45 days of sugarcane aphid control starting from planting.  This could help slow or retard the establishment of the sugarcane aphid, particularly for a late planted or catch-crop sorghum or hay field. 
Finally we have our action thresholds and two products to choose from this season if chemical control is required.  Economic and action thresholds are and will be a work in progress for all new and invasive pests until the research can be done to determine the true economic impact.  While the ET (economic threshold) is still a subject of discussion, I am still encouraging the action threshold of 100 aphids per leaf average from 10 randomly selected from across the field plant’s top and lower leaves.  If at risk fields reach this threshold, treatment should be justified.  This season, Transform does have a section 18 label while Sivanto has a section 2 label. 

The highlights of the Transform Section 18 label are these:

  • Use rate: 0.75 - 1.5 oz.
  • Maximum number of applications: 2 (and not to exceed 3.0 oz of Transform per year).
  • Minimum treatment interval: Do not make applications less than 14 days apart.
  • Preharvest Interval: Do not apply within 14 days of grain or straw harvest or within 7 days of grazing.
  • Restricted entry interval (REI): 24 hours. 
The highlights for the  Sivanto label are:

Sivanto 200SL (Flupyradifurone) insecticide has been issued a Section 2(ee) label for use on sorghum to control sugarcane aphid. The new sugarcane aphid use rate that became effective on 3/2/15 is 4.0 - 7.0 oz. (The full Section 3 label specifies 7.0 - 10.5 oz, but lower rates can now be used on sorghum to control sugarcane aphid.)

Other relevant information appears below.

Preharvest Interval (PHI): 7 days for forage, 21 days for grain, stover or straw.
Minimum interval between applications: 7 days.
Minimum application volumes: 10 GPA by ground, 2 GPA by air.
Maximum number of ounces that can be used per season: 28.

Thanks and good luck,

Blayne Reed

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